ONU CONFERENCE, STOCKHOLM 1972 – RIO DE JANEIRO, 1992
KYOTO COP 3, 1997 – RATIFICATION OF KYOTO PROTOCOL, 16.02.2005
COP 15 COPENHAGEN, 2009 – COP 16 CANCUN, 2010
The Ecology Train of Our Earth departed in the 70’s, having had a good background prepared in previous years … It’s already 40 years that this train travels around our beautiful Earth, from city to city. Maybe something was really lost in recent years. THE TIME. Something that someone did not want to hear, did not want to believe. It was complex and very difficult this travel. And perhaps for this reason who was driving the Great Train of the Earth Ecology, has created synergic matters, to help understand the seriousness of the problem – so was created the Ecological Economy, Political Ecology … We arrived in Mexico now, Cancun, where in November 29th, 2010 was opened the COP 16, the World Conference on the Earth’s Climate. But let’s start from station to station.
George Perkins Marsh was the first environmentalist of the United States, lived in the 19th century. The son of a U.S. Senator, 8 years Marsh has had a problem with the eye that impeded him to read for many years. He has developed an exceptional memory for information accessed by others. He developed a love for animals, plants and nature. He became a philologist, scientist, an excellent organizer, businessman, lawyer, diplomat. In 1869 Lincoln appointed him U.S. ambassador to Italy, where Marsh died in 1882 in Vallombrosa in Tuscany. Being a man skilled in many fields, intelligent and a great observer, in 1864 published a book “Man and Nature” that the first was titled ““Man the Distructor of Natur’s Harmonies”, but the publisher chose the less radical way.
Marsh wrote in the introduction: “The object of this volume is: to indicate the character and … the extent of the changes produced by human actions in the physical condition of the globe we inhabit; to point out the dangers of imprudence and the necessity of caution in all operations which… interfere with the spontaneous arrangements of the organic and inorganic world; to suggest the possibility and the importance of restoration of distributed harmonies and the material improvement of waste and exhausted regions; and, incidentally, to illustrate the doctrine that man is the power of higher order that any of the other forms of animated life, which, like him, are nourished at the table of bounteous nature.” In his book, Marsh spoke of the deforestation, canals built, water pollution, problems of desertification of the Sahara. The world in 1864 was not well disposed to listen to his warnings. But we are prepared now. We have no doubts about the message of Marsh, 146 years later. (1)
In 1925 Russian economist Nikolai D. Kondratiev (1892-1938) published the pilot book “The Major Economic Cycles.” Kondratiev’s book has been translated into English only in 1984. As Kondratiev was murdered during the purges of Stalin, other economists have developed his ideas.
Joseph Schumpeter – Christopher Freeman – Carlotta Perez, described the waves of the cycle of innovation:
1- years 1770-1830 – mechanization: iron, water power, textiles, commerce;
2 – years 1830-1880 – steam power, railways, steel, cotton.
3 – years 1880 -1930 – electrification and engineering cycle: electricity, chemicals, internal combustion engine;
4 – years 1930 -1980 – a method of chain production: petrochemicals, electronics, aviation, space. 1927 – carbon emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and industry reach 1 billion tons per year. 1975 – World population reaches 4 billion.
The first major oil crisis, 1973. Beginning of Global Warming.
5 – years 1980-2010 – information technology, communication and biotechnology: digital networks, biotechnology, software, information technology. 1999 – World population reaches 6 billion. 2006 – carbon emissions from combustion of fossil fuels by industry reaches 8 billion tonnes a year
6- 2010 year – future – Green Economy Cycle: sustainability, resource productivity, systemic design, biomimicry, green chemistry, industrial ecology, renewable energy, green nanotechnology.
It seems that the efficiency of the sixth cyclic innovative wave is 5 times higher for resource use, compared to the technologies of the industries that dominated before. (2)
The geologist Wallace Broecker of Columbia University was the first to link the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at the temperature of the planet. On August 26, 1975 he published an article in the Science journal that correctly predicted what would be the trend of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere connecting to the warming that we are experiencing as part of climate change and for the first time used the term “global warming “. He was not the first to predict that rising atmospheric CO2 levels would change weather patterns but he was the first to consider CO2 in connection to warming. Looking at 1940 to 1970, Broecker has concluded in the period when CO2 was rising, while the temperatures came down for decades, he has understood the basic physics of the problem. (3).
Another scientist of an universal importance was the Russian academic, founder of the environmental sciences of the Earth Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945). In 1926 Vernadsky published the book “Biosphere”, which was originally published in French, Italian and Spanish, the entire English version were published only in 1998. (4).
Vladimir Vernadsky in the original theory has primacy in the subdivision of land into 3 phases of development:
Geosphere (inanimate matter)
Biosphere (biological life)
Noosphere (sphere of human thought).
The term “Noosphere” means “sphere of human thought” and comes from the union of the Greek word νους (“nous”) meaning mind, and word sphere, in analogy with the term “atmosphere” and “biosphere”. The term “noosphere” Vernadsky adopted from colleague, French mathematician Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, with whom he worked in the twenthies in a laboratory in Paris. The term was also proposed in 1927 by the French mathematician E. Lerois. By Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the noosphere is a kind of “collective consciousness” of human beings that arises from the interaction of human minds. The noosphere has grown with the organization and the interaction of humans as they populated the Earth. More humanity is organized in the form of complex social networks, plus the noosphere expand their knowledge. The Earth theory developed by Vernadsky has greatly influenced the subsequent Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis.
Leonardo da Vinci has been in advance for many centuries as an inventor and engineer as well as Vernadsky has been ahead of his foresight of the importance of the Earth study as the integrated complex of the interaction between geosphere, biosphere and noosphere and the importance of the positive consciousness for the future of the Planet. In the thirties he was keeping the idea about the panspermia of live on the Earth as the result of its carrying from the other planets of solar system.
The “Biosphere” book by Vernadsky had not have any favorable review neither from the side of scientists nor from philosophers and it was absolutely ignored in Europe. During many years the Vernadsky ideas about biosphere and noosphere were simply suppressed. In 1931 he has wrote with bitterness in his diary: «The realm of my ideas is in the future».
The monograph «Chemical structure of biosphere of the Earth and its surroundings» was appeared as the last and the most synthetical book by Academic Vernadsky and published only in 2001. The scientist has started to write the monograph when he has been already 72 years old. He has strongly started to work at the book since 1940, at the time of his exile staying in Borovoe village in Kazakhstan during the World War II. His book, consequent of his intensive cerebral activity within almost 25 years, has been finished by Florensky, his follower after his death. Vernadsky was naming this monograph as “The book of my life”, “my most important book”.
On the 11th March, 1920 Vernadsky was keeping in his diary: «I am fully conscious that I was destined to tell the humanity the new about the study of the living substance which I’m going to establish and that is my appeal, my obligation, superposed on myself, which I have to pursue in life as prophet, feeling the voice inside himself calling to the activity. I have felt inside the demon of Socrat. I am aware of the study which can impact as well as the book of Darwin”.
The creation of the theory of biosphere and noosphere was the logical result of an enormous cerebral activity which has been lasted more than a quarter of a century. Vernadsky has viewed the humanity activity as the logical phase of biosphere growth and he was sure that the man relations with the nature and its resources will be more rational and will be directed to the conservation, renewal and improvement. He has invented the Noosphere term for the future state of biosphere which is the subject to be changed upon the influence of a human intellect.
Vernadsky died on January, 1945 in Borovoe village never finishing the “main book of his life” especially the chapter of his vision of noosphere. This chapter has been finished by his followers evolving the author’s preamble into the monograph «The scientific thought as the planetary phenomenon».
The evolution of biosphere during 2 milliards years has brought to the cephalisation of the central nervous system (brain) of a man (Dan’s principle, the professor of Yale University, 1813-1895). The mankind is a small mass of all matter of the planet, which can be situated on the area of Boden lake. The power of the humanity is its brain, a strong geological factor capable to change the face of the Earth.
During thirties-forties, Vernadsky was one of the leading consultants of the country on the issuers of the usage of the atomic energy and like all great scientists, he was completely awared of the fatal consequences outgoing from the non-peaceful application of this kind of energy.
In 1945 in the last lines of his unfinished book Vernadsky was writing:
«Now we are going through the new geological evolutional change of biosphere. We are entering into the noosphere. We are entering into this new spontaneous geological process in the World War epoch, a horrible and breaking period.
But for us it is important that the ideals of our democracy are in the harmony with the spontaneous geological process, laws of nature and in accordance with noosphere so that we can boldly look into the future. It is in our hands and we shall not loose it».
In 1972 in Stockholm U.N.O has organized the First International Congress for the Environmental questions, where the representatives from 106 countries have been taken part. The Congress has taken the decision that the theoretical base of the international police of environmental protection should be the theory about the Earth Biosphere and its transformation in Noosphere by Vernadsky.
The theory of Vernadsky on Biosphere and Noosphere was taken as the basis of the program of the Second International Conference on the Environment – “Agenda for the XXI Century” adopted in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. On May 9, 1992 in New York was adopted “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change”, which is considered the first international treaty specifically related to climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty for the impact of the global warming per Environment, has been signed on 11 December in Kyoto, Japan by more than 160 countries by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The treaty came into force on 16 February 2005 following ratification by Russia.
On the 16 February 2007 it was 2 yeas since the accession to the Kyoto Protocol and 10 years since its signing.
Greenhouse gases, emissions of which should be reduced:
– Carbon dioxide (CO2)
– Methane (CH4)
– Nitric oxide (N2O)
– Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC)
– Perfluorocarbons (PFC)
– Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
Scientific world is used to name these gases by “CO2 equivalents” term referring to its capacity to change the climate.
From the Report of the European Commission: “… to combat climate change by 2020 is necessary:
– to reduce by 20 % CO2 emissions, producing in Europe, against 1990
– to produce by 20 % power by the renewable resources
– to increase by 20 % of energy efficiency till the end of 2020.
In order to turn the page of the history for the support of the global ecological equilibrium, Meadows et all has pointed out 5 fundamental factors, which have to be in basis of the forming of a new model:
– social networks
– intelligent decency
The sustainable development concept has been initially invented in the report by Brundtland (Our Common Future), adopted in 1987 by World Commission on Environment and Development:
Sustainable development is development that satisfied the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs». (WCED, 1987).
THE MAIN ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS
THAT ARE DERIVED FROM HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE EARTH
Retreat of glaciers
The acceleration of the retreat of mountain and arctic glaciers has led to the increase of atmosphere temperature.
The most part of the heat has elaborated against the greenhouse effect is concentrated in oceans. This phenomenon has activated thermal dilatation of water which further caused ocean level to rise by minimum 25 % during the last 50 years. It seems that the heat is going to be as the leading force for the formation of hurricane.
Modification of the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and phosphorus.
The total water use.
Changes of land use.
The increase of greenhouse effect:
10 millions tons of carbon dioxide were elaborated at the speed of growth in 4 times more on 2000.
The economic crisis has forced millions of people to the deforestation in order to have the heating source, to produce the goods of woody nature, and use these lands for construction and agriculture.
Problem of waste:
Yearly we result more than 2000 milliards tons of garbage. In 2004 China has outrun USA as the biggest producer of waste and it is going to happen that on 2030 China will generate 500 million tons per year.
Upon the average, one individual generates 1,4 kg of garbage (40 tons during the life) in one advanced develop country.
The limitation of the quantity of a waste growth by the repeated processing and burning with the energy release would be decreased the greenhouse gases blowout and guaranteed the society and environment benefit.
The increase of ozone “hole” in ozone layer protecting from noxious radiation rays has been stopped in 2007: from 29 millions км2 (2006) has reduced to 25 millions. But in 2008 the hole was started to grow again. The decrease of ozone was caused by gases, such as Hydrofluorocarbons which are used during freezing and further remaining in the atmosphere.
From the 44’837, the total number of known species, 38 % is under the disappearance risk. According to the Red List of Endangered Species wrote in 2008 by the International Unit for the Conversation of Nature (lucn), one of four mammals among which almost half of primates (300 of 634) at a risk of disappearing forever,
Birds – 9990 species described by science, 12% threatened
Reptiles – 8734 species described, 31% threatened
Amphibians – 6 347 species described, 30% threatened
Fish – 30 700 species described, 37% threatened
Invertebrates – 1,232,384 species described, 41% threatened
Plants – 298 506 species described, 70% threatened. (6).
The human impact on geophysical phenomenona.
Christian Klose, the researcher of the Schoool of Applied Science of the Columbia University, USA has recently showed that starting from the 19th century till the present days more than 200 earthquakes measuring from 4.5 to 7.9 on the Richter scale have been occurred as the result of geoengineering works. Most of the earthquakes occurred in the areas of coal, oil and gas production from the Earth interior. The big plants such as dams and diggings, as well as skyscrapers can result earthquakes, collapses and mud flows.
China, 26 May, 2008: the earthquake that measured to 7.9 on the Richter scale, in Sichuan province which took 80.000 lives. It occurs because of the water pressure of the huge dam in Zipingpu which caused the movement of the rupture at the length of 300 km.
Uzbekistan, 2007, gas field – geotectonic characteristics were deformed due to the extraction of gas and liquid injection which has led to 60 earthquake of a small intensity in the Basel region, Switzerland.
Newcastle, Australia, 28 December 1989: There was a Richter magnitude 5.6. earthquake, the coal mining in the region triggered the earthquake. The mine has been used within 200 years.
Vajont, Pordenone, Italy, 09 October 1963 – the whole flank of TOS mountain has fallen down into the artificial lake of a dam causing the burst of the lake banks. The number of victims were about 2000.
The Hoover dam, between Arizona and Nevada, 1935 – the earthquakes occurred during the process of its construction.
The former Soviet Union changed the course of two Central Asian rivers that fed the Aral Lake to irrigate cotton fields. The lake disappeared.
From the negative thinking to the positive one
To the main anthropogenic effects connected with the human activity I would like to add one of no small importance, the negative thinking. In order to really turn over a page of the history in the direction of the support of the global ecological equilibrium, we have to change the thinking from the negative one to the positive one. We have always to choose the positive way on the scale of values and human activities from 0 up to 100, between odium and love, egoism and altruism, war and peace, cheat and sincerity, cruelty and pacifism, corruption and decency, voluptuousness and sobriety, inertia and spiritual growth, racism and respect of the human rights.
The next important step and great hope was the UN Climate Conference held from 7 to 18 December 2009 in Copenhagen, COP 15. So many hopes and few results. Perhaps because politicians still did not believe in the seriousness of the problems accumulated over the past 40 years and wasn’t a plan to solve them. It been given the global problem that affects everyone. Maybe this is already good and facing the enormity of this problem must have time to digest and process the plan. The time that there isn’t.
In March 15tn, 2010 at Palazzo De Carolis, Jim Hansen, the great climatologist, a professor at Columbia University and director of the prestigious Goddard Institute for Spaces Studies (GISS) NASA, gave the Aurelio Peccei Lecture 2010, organized by the Fondazione Aurelio Peccei (which is the Club of Rome in Italy) and WWF Italy, explaining the reasons that should lead to immediate and urgent action the world of policy-makers.
Hansen believes global warming a real bomb and calls for urgent political commitment to turn the page and seriously attack the problem.
Jim Hansen is engaged in climate research since the seventies and has worked hard on paleoclimatology, the dynamics of the climate system and the energy balance of the climate system, that is how the Sun’s radiant energy enters the Earth’s climate system and how much comes out.
In the light of his researches and those of many other distinguished climatologists, Hansen considers that a “planetary boundary” it’s a limit that humanity can not exceed, except at his risk, the presence of 350 parts per million by volume of carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide in the chemical composition of the atmosphere.
We know well that over the last 800’000 years (with data, especially through the analysis of the presence of carbon dioxide in the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air bubbles trapped in ice, dating to various geological ages, thanks especially in the Antarctic ice cores conducted) that the presence of carbon dioxide in the chemical composition of the atmosphere has undergone several fluctuations, during the different periods of glacial and interglacial periods, but has never surpassed 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv ), except in rare situations. In 2009, however we already reached 388 ppmv and the large international research program on the carbon cycle (Global Carbon Cycle project, www.globalcarbonproject.org) documents, each year, the budget of carbon on our Planet, recording an increase of emissions carbon due to human intervention (from the activities of burning fossil fuels to the changes of land use and deforestation) and the resulting increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the chemical composition of the atmosphere.
Jim Hansen was one of 29 scientists who have published a fascinating work on the prestigious scientific journal “Nature” (7), on the “planetary boundaries, beyond which it is believed that human intervention must not venture, effective sentence unexpected and disastrous on all our social systems, and of course on the same natural systems that form the basis of our prosperity and our economies.
There is now a large and growing convergence, made official by the “Copenhagen Agreement”, on the indication not to exceed 2 °C in average surface temperature than pre-industrial era. This “guardrail” 2 °C is based on a combination of different topics of scientific analysis and political analysis (the scientific projections concerning any harm that might occur according to different levels of global warming that could be achieved, the value judgments on unacceptability of such impacts, etc…)
Hansen proposed, together with other scientists who signed the work in Nature, “two” planetary boundaries “for the climate system: the aforementioned stop at 350 ppmv of carbon dioxide in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the upper limit of 1 watt per square meter, as the change in the balance between the Sun’s radiant energy entering the climate system and what comes out. Today, according to the collected data, we are on 1.6 watts per square meter. This means that, at present, humanity has already passed both the “planetary boundaries” mentioned by the scientists of the Earth system science, as regards the climate system. (8).
Stewart Maginnis, Director for Environment and Development of IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) says that “Despite the disappointing outcome of the Copenhagen Conference, the Redd-plus (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is a success story. Redd-plus has emerged as a consistent framework and important movement for positive social and environmental safeguards. We need to build on this success and sign a pact on Redd-plus. ”
“We must act now – says the IUCN – without waiting for international negotiations to reach a conclusion. Nature is our ally against climate change. Healthy ecosystems can help us to better fight for the impacts of climate change and to store carbon. ”
According Ninni Ikkala, climate change coordinator for the IUCN, “It must have adopted a framework for adaptation to climate change that provides adequate financing and recognize the role of ecosystems. In parallel, we must work in the field to increase the resilience of local communities in front to the impact of climate change, including through better management of natural resources. (9).
Over 250 main international investors, banks, insurance companies, fund managers, have signed an appeal in view of the Cancun summit to urge the adoption of incisive actions against climate change and avoid the devastating consequences “much more serious that financial crisis “. According to this group, climate emergency could cause the loss of 20% of global GDP by 2010.
The paleoclimate data of the last 65 million years suggest that the planet was largely free of ice with an atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide around 450 ppm, which helps to indicate how dangerous the area with concentrations of carbon dioxide ranging from 350 to 550 ppm. The increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide over 350 ppm may lead it to surpass certain levels that can lead to many significant effects as the disappearance of large parts of the polar ice caps. (10).
5 days before of COP 16 UN Framework Convention on Climate change in Cancun, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) presented the report “Emissions Gap Report” which reminds us that to keep the average increase of the temperature within 2 ̊C in the XXI century, States must reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 60%. The global emissions should peak within the next 10 years and be about 44 billion tons of CO2 equivalents in 2020. The UNEP document reveals that: “In a business as usual scenario, annual emissions of greenhouse gases could be about 56 billion tons of CO2 equivalents by 2020. Implementing the commitments in the Copenhagen agreement could be, at best, reduce emissions to about 49 billion tons of CO2 eq. by 2020, leaving a vote of about 5 million tons of C02. In the case of scenario “lowest ambition”, the emissions may be less than 53 billion tons of CO2 eq., leaving a significant gap of 9 billion t. As demonstrated by the study, it is possible to compensate the remaining gap through national actions. In order to guarantee the target of 1.5 ̊C the post-2020 emissions will go down even faster, perhaps 4-5% annually, and become negative around 2050. The study was carried out by 30 scientists from 25 international research institutes and in collaboration with the European Climate Foundation and the National Institute of Ecology of the Ministry of Environment of Mexico. (11).
Corrado Clini, General Director of the Ministry of Environment of Italy: “… the very complex challenge as regards the energy system with the goal of reducing fossil fuel use and emissions and the dangerous intensification of extreme atmospheric events.” The economic crisis could provide an opportunity to better target investment and a preference for clean energy, energy efficiency and new technologies.
Mathis Wackernagel, founder and Executive Director of Global Footprint Network: “Climate change is not a problem in isolation, but rather a symptom of a larger problem: the systematic abuse of humanity of the limited resources of the planet. Our natural systems can only generate a finite amount of raw materials (fish, trees, plants, etc.) and to absorb a limited amount of waste (as C02). (12).
Preparations have been so many this year before the COP 16 Conference in Cancun:
in Bonn, in China. On 22 November in Mexico met 138 mayors from 43 countries and all continents of the world and have signed the “Mexico City Pact” (13):
“Considering that today half the world’s population lives in cities and, according to the International Energy Agency in 2006 have used up to 67% of the energy and produced more than 70% of all CO2 emissions and that, with ongoing urbanization and urban growth, it is estimated that by 2030 energy consumption in cities will increase to 73% of total world and CO2 emissions to 76%;
Recognizing that cities play a strategic role in the fight against climate change because they are centers of innovation in economic, political and cultural … and because they manage large amounts of public resources, infrastructure, investment funds and knowledge;
Inviting more cities and local authorities to launch action without wasting time or redouble their efforts on climate, both in the country in developing than in developed countries; …
The mayors, meeting on the eve of COP 16, have pledged to perform 10 points in the text of the Covenant, presented at the COP 16 Conference in Cancun.
Vernadsky has considered every human individual as the unique one on the Earth and was writing: “The human personality is the most valuable and the biggest value, existing on our planet. It did not occasionally appeared, once gone it never be restored completely…. The best memory about the gone is the realising their intended plans by the ones, whom the memories of the people are of value».
Roberto Trotta, astrophysicist from Tessin, the researcher of the Royal college in London, during the conference on matter and black energy, held on 29 July 2009 in Ascona, Switzerland, on the Verità mountain in the centre of Stefano Franscini:
«The Universal geometry in the large scale is seemed planar. If it is like that, its means that the space density has the definite meaning, which is proved if it has 5 % of a visible matter, 25 % of a hidden matter and 70 % of a black energy. The theoretical physicists starting to take into consideration the anthropogenic interpretations in order to understand more or less the last one. It seems that the laws of nature and physical constants in the Universal have been created thus to be in accordance with the evolution of the complicated biological creatures. It is all seemed to be created under our order… Up to date cosmology making the epochal crossing. Within 4 centuries the science was trying to open the laws of nature. Now we are setting more difficult questions. Why the laws of nature are these ones, why not the others? Why are these constants but not the other ones?». (14):
The Ecology Train of Our Earth arrived in Cancun where on November 29tn, 2010 was opened the UN Conference on Climate and will close on December 10. The Train of Hope, the Train of Life. Each country will take in his luggage proposals, hopes, want of changes, but also fears and insecurities, before taking a new road. We have one house, our Planet, and it’s up to us, all together, regardless of color, origin, social class, leaving the Planet beautiful, healthy and prosperous for future generations, as our ancestors left it us.
December 04th, 2010
Tatiana Mikhaevitch, Ph.D. in Biology
1. John H. Lienhard, George Perkins Marsh, www.uh.edu/engines/epi595.htm;
2. Ernst Von Weizsacker, Karlson Charlie Hargroves, Michael H.Smith, Cheryl Desha, Peter Stasinopoulos, Factor Five: Transforming the Global Economy through 80 % Increase in Resource Productivity. Earthscan, London, 2009.
3. www.giornaletismo.com, 26.08.2010.
4. Vernadsky Vladimir, “The chemical composition of the biosphere of the earth and its environment “, », Mosca, Nauka, 2001, 376 pp.
5. data GEO dell’UNEP.
6. Meadows D. H., Meadows D. L., Randers J., 2004 – Limits to Growth . The 30-Year Update – Chelsea Green Publishing Company (ed .it. – I nuovi limiti dello sviluppo – Mondadori).
7. Rockstrom J. et al., “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity”, Nature, vol,461; September 2009; 472-475).
8. www.greenreport.it, 12 .03.2010, Gianfranco Bologna. Confini planetari e gw: Hansen a Roma per chiedere ai politici di agire.
9. www.greenreport.it, 01.06.2010. A Bonn aria di crisi per i negoziati sul clima.
10. Corriere della Sera, 22.11.2010.
11. www.greenreport.it, 24.11.2010. Unep: almeno 5 gigatonnellate di CO2 di troppo per restare sotto i 2 ̊C di aumento delle temperature.
12. www.greenreport.it, 26.11.2010. Cancun. Come possiamo vincere.
13. www.greenreport.it, 22.11.2010.I sindaci fanno il Patto di Città del Messico: azioni climatiche misurabili, comunicabili e verificabili.
14. Il Corriere del Ticino, 30.07.2009.